O.K., last week we finished up with SCORM, which paved the way for a discussion about Tin Can API and, yes, Experience API. Let’s get right into it . . .
SCORM had peaked in its level of development and value, and the ADL (Advanced Distributed Learning Authority) decided a newer version of SCORM would not meet its continuing need. As such, in 2011, ADL issued a contract to investigate, research, and basically re-think SCORM in order to advance its mission and goals. The Nashville-based business Rustici Software won this contract, and the firm initiated its work by starting a conversation, a conversation that became Project Tin Can.
Rustici termed the research phase of the contract to be Project Tin Can. They embraced the image and notion of tin-can communication to convey the two-way communication between Rustici and the eLearning community.
Per Rustici, this process included seeking information through five different avenues:
- nput from hundreds of xAPI stakeholders;
- Interviews with key industry leaders;
- LETSI SCORM 2.0 White Papers (this was, in many ways, a precursor of Project Tin Can; for an archive of these papers, see the Rustici site: https://scorm.com/tincanoverview/the-letsi-scorm-2-0-white-papers/;
- Interactions with then current Rusti customers; and,
- The ADL contract specifications.
A Rose By Any Other Name . . . Tin Can API/Experience API/xAPI
While the results of the Project Tin Can research produced Tin Can API, the latter was a qualitative successor to SCORM and an earlier version of the continually evolving Experience API. xAPI, then, is simply an acronym for Experience [eXperience] API, neither a successor to nor a different version of Experience API.
It really seems confusion arose and still arises from the period when Tin Can and Experience API virtually were synonymous. This was the period of and the immediate years following Rustici’s submission of its deliverables to the ADL. At that time, perhaps understandably, Rustici stated:
“ADL will be transferring ownership of the spec to a public standards body after v1.0 is complete this spring. After that transfer, we don’t expect the official government name “Experience API” to last much longer [emphasis added].”
They had branded their process and deliverable with the “Tin Can” name, and their work was widely known by many in the industry as the Tin Can API. Yet, the ADL used the name Experience API in their contract specifications and in their continuing usage. Experience API is the pervasive name that is used, and the name “Tin Can” is only formally used in reference to Rustici’s original contract work. Indeed, Rustici later called its response to the ADL contract “Project xAPI.”
Ownership versus Web Domains
The ADL awarded the contract—the BAA [Broad Agency Announcement, which in general, is for basic and applied research and development]—to Rustici and, as such, the work derived from that contract was and is the property of the United States Government. The issue of name “ownership” publicly arose in a May 2012 Google Group discussion:
The concern centered on the Rustici trademark petition for the names of “Tin Can” and “Project Tin Can.” No less a figure than Rustici President, Mike Rustici, weighed in on the concern to assure writers that the company had no proprietary claim on the use of “Tin Can” and sought to obtain trademark status to avoid it from being “pirated” by others who might be less community minded.
The continuing Google Group discussion continued on the topic as to whether or not Rustici would use the “Tin Can” moniker in any of its future commercial enterprises; to wit, Rustici replied that it would, however, the company would not prevent others from doing so.
Toward this end, while Tin Can, Experience API, and, for that matter, SCORM, are names under government “contract,” as it were, Rustici owns the web domains for www.tincanapi.com, which is redirected to another one of their web domains, www.experienceapi.com; they also own the web domain of www.scorm.com. In their separate domains, they clearly differentiate the administration, ownership, and stewardship of the respective names to the ADL, but that they also offer services for companies seeking to utilize the SCORM and/or Experience API specifications. For a response by Rustici Software on this subject, please see:
Note: To be clear, the above comments neither are intended nor take away from any of Rustici Software’s groundbreaking work in the field of eLearning; rather, the comments are included to simply clarify distinctions amongst terms and the like.
Next step: Finally, a focused discussion on the Tin Can API/Experience API Innovations and its evolution.
Craig Lee Keller, Ph.D., JAG Learning Strategist