Experience API (Part 2)
In our last blog we discussed the foundation for Experience API, Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL). Let’s reiterate the truly pressing need for ADL, because it’s so, so easy to get lost in the rapid pace of technological innovation and moreover system transformation.
Prior to ADL, and prior to eLearning, education that utilized computers, in many ways, was a solitary, alienating experience for both the user and the providers of educational content. How’s that? Education and training took place at a single computer station, prior to the days of networking. Looking backwards, that form of education has been termed Computer Based Training (CBT). Think of a painfully sad image of a bureaucrat in a cubical toiling away. Let’s look to Dilbert for insight:
In CBT, administrators purchased software packages—generally expensive software packages—that could be utilized by single or multiple users based on purchased licensing privileges. Proprietary packages, unlike today, were not cloud based, but utilized compact discs (CDs) to access programs. I remember an actor on television regaling the value and permanency of CDs pronouncing, “they can even be dropped in your goldfish bowl and nothing happens!” Information input through the software would be saved on the resident computer (or back in my day, on floppy disks ☺) and coded into a file structure that could only be accessed via proprietary software. When software was updated to fix glitches and to add additional functions, the educational administrator generally had to purchase next iteration of proprietary software in order to access old data and/or use it with the new functions. Software companies might offer mechanisms for translating the files of a competitor, but frequently the results were disappointing. As stated before, all of this was the problem that ADL set out to address.
ADL and the Need for SCORM Protocols
As noted in last week’s blog, the ADL was developed by the U.S. Department of Defense in the mid-1990s to streamline its technological approach to education and training. As one might suspect, though, other agencies within the federal government simultaneously were engaged in similar projects for their own programs in education and technology. In order to avoid duplication and inevitable conflicts in integration, the array of federal ADL programs were consolidated within DoD ADL Initiative. It would not be surprising for private industry to fall in line with this program, as a large portion of their revenue is generated from government contracting.
Based on Congressional defense authorization and President William Clinton’s Executive Order 13111, DoD created a strategic plan for ADL with the the following areas of research:
- eLearning (web-based learning)—Research technical components and techniques to develop and support electronic-based education and training . . . consistent and interoperable . . . best practices . . . learning management systems, content registries, and Massive Open Online Courses
- Mobile learning and mobile performance support—Research focused on the use of commercially-available handheld computing devises to provide access to learning content and information systems . . .
- Learning analytics and performance modeling—Research in collection, measurement, analysis and reporting of data, which may include “big data,” about learns and their contexts, for purposes of understanding, optimizing, and predicting learning success . . . competencies, credentialing, learner profiles, data visualization . . . associated privacy and information security concerns.
- Learning Theory—Research focused on the application, evaluation, and embedding of efficient and effective, current, new, and emerging theories of learning, instructional technology . . .
- Total Learning Architecture infrastructure (TLA)—Research focused on modernizing the platforms used for education and training, to interoperability of disparate systems so they can be used together as a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to securely share relevant learning data including, but not limited to, granular learning experience . . .
- Web-based Virtual Worlds and simimulations (VWs)—Research into the emerging fields of serious games, simulations, and virtual reality (within a distributed learning context) . . .[https://adlnet.gov/research]
Given the research mandates noted above, it became necessary to develop a language that facilitated the goals of accessibility, reusability, and interoperability. The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) was the first solution.
Next step: the discussion of references in computer science and their relationship to and the development of SCORM and ultimately Experience API.
Craig Lee Keller, Ph.D., JAG Learning Strategist